Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales.
The city is located on Australia‘s east coast. With its magnificent harbour and strategic position, it is one of the most important ports in the South Pacific.
As of September 2019, the population of Sydney is about 5.3 million people. It is the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Sydney covers a total area of 12,367 square kilometers (4,775 square miles).
The city has an average elevation of 19 meters (62 feet) above sea level.
Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated.
Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, and thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites.
During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia.
Arthur Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.
A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre.
In 1901, Sydney became a state capital, when New South Wales voted to join the Australian Federation.
After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world.
Today, the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city’s landmarks.
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts center at Sydney Harbour. It is one of the 20th century’s most famous and distinctive buildings. Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, the building was formally opened on 20 October 1973 after a gestation beginning with Utzon’s 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition. On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is one of Australia‘s most well known and photographed landmarks. The bridge, also affectionately known as the ‘Coathanger’, was opened on March 19th 1932 by Premier Jack Lang, after eight years of construction. The bridge’s design was influenced by the Hell Gate Bridge in New York City. It is the sixth longest spanning-arch bridge in the world and the tallest steel arch bridge, measuring 134 meters (440 feet) from top to water level.
Darling Harbour is a harbour adjacent to the city center of Sydney. It is made up of a large recreational and pedestrian precinct that is situated on western outskirts of the Sydney central business district. The Darling Harbour precinct is home to a number of major public facilities and attractions, including Wild Life Sydney Zoo, Sydney Aquarium, Madame Tussauds, Chinese Garden of Friendship, Tumbalong Park, Powerhouse Museum and Australian National Maritime Museum.
The Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney is a major 30-hectare (74-acre) botanical garden, event venue and public recreation area located at Farm Cove on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district. Opened in 1816, the garden is the oldest scientific institution in Australia and one of the most important historic botanical institutions in the world.
The sweeping white-sand crescent of Bondi is one of Australia’s most iconic beaches. Reliable waves draw surfers while, nearby, hardy locals swim in the Icebergs ocean pool year-round. Trendy, health-conscious Sydneysiders head to laid-back cafes around Hall Street, while hip backpackers frequent the area’s casual pubs. Walkers and joggers use the clifftop Bondi to Coogee Coastal Walk, with its dramatic scenery.
The Queen Victoria Building is a late-nineteenth-century building designed by the architect George McRae located at 429-481 George Street in the Sydney central business district. The Romanesque Revival building was constructed between 1893 and 1898 and is 30 metres (98 ft) wide by 190 metres (620 ft) long. The domes were built by Ritchie Brothers a steel and metal company that also built trains, trams and farm equipment.
The largest celebration in Australia is held in Sydney. The “Midnight Fireworks” are regularly watched by approximately 1.5–2 million people at Sydney Harbour. As one of the first major New Year’s celebrations globally each year, Sydney’s Midnight Fireworks are often broadcast throughout the world during the day of 31 December.
More than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney.
Residents of the city are known as “Sydneysiders.”