The Pomeranian often known as a Pom is a breed of toy dog.
In many countries, they are known as the Zwergspitz meaning “Dwarf Spitz”.
The Pomeranian is a descendant of the sled dogs of Iceland and Lapland and is the smallest member of the spitz family of dogs.
Spitz breeds mean a type of dog that has several wolflike characteristics. For instance, small ears to help reduce the risk of frostbite. The insulating undercoat that is denser than the guard hairs to trap the warmth and protect them from the heat.
The breed is thought to have acquired its name by association with the area known as Pomerania which is located in northern Poland and Germany along the Baltic Sea. Although not the origin of the breed, this area is credited with the breeding which led to the original Pomeranian type of dog.
Proper documentation was lacking until the breed’s introduction into the United Kingdom.
The breed has been made popular by a number of royal owners since the 18th century.
Queen Victoria worked to improve and promote the Pomeranian breed by importing smaller Pomeranians of different colours from various European countries to add to her breeding program. During Queen Victoria’s lifetime alone, the size of the breed decreased by half.
Royal owners during this period also included Joséphine de Beauharnais, the wife of Napoleon I of France, and King George IV of the United Kingdom.
Other historical figures of refined sensibilities who were Pom owners include Marie Antoinette, Emile Zola, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
The earliest examples of the breed were white or occasionally brown or black. Queen Victoria adopted a small red Pomeranian in 1888, which caused that color to become fashionable by the end of the 19th century.
In 1912, two Pomeranians were among only three dogs to survive the sinking of RMS Titanic. A Pomeranian called “Lady”, owned by Miss Margaret Hays, escaped with her owner in lifeboat number seven, while Elizabeth Barrett Rothschild took her pet to safety with her in lifeboat number six.
The average lifespan of the Pomeranian is 12 to 16 years.
Pomeranians are small dogs weighing from 1.35 to 3.15 kilograms (3 to 7 lb) and standing from 20 to 36 cm (8 to 14 inches) high at the withers.
They are compact but sturdy dogs with an abundant textured coat with a highly plumed tail set high and flat. The top coat forms a ruff of fur on the neck, which Poms are well known for, and they also have a fringe of feathery hair on the hindquarters.
In modern times, the Pomeranian comes in the widest variety of colors of any dog breed, including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable, black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, and parti, plus combinations of those colors. The most common colors are orange, black, or cream/white.
Pomeranians are typically friendly, lively and playful. They can be aggressive with other dogs and humans to try to prove themselves.
These dogs are alert and aware of changes in their environment, and barking at new stimuli can develop into a habit of barking excessively in any situation.
They are somewhat defensive of their territory and thus may bark when they hear outside noises.
Pomeranians are intelligent, respond well to training, and can be very successful in getting what they want from their owners.
They are extroverted and enjoy being the center of attention, but they can become dominant, willful and stubborn if not well trained and socialized.
The use of toys can be an effective tool in training Pomeranians to spend time alone.
Poms also have a medium-high energy level, so routine exercise is highly recommended. Try offering daily walks and frequent play.
The Pomeranian has a long, thick, double hair coat that requires somewhat frequent grooming. Plan to brush your Pom’s coat out several times a week.
On average, Pomeranians generally cost between $500-$1,500. According to NextDayPets, the average price of Pomeranians sold is $900. The price for Pomeranians with top breed lines and a superior pedigree increases steeply. For these, you can expect to pay anywhere from $3,000 up to $10,000, depending on the breeder.
The Pomeranian has been among the more popular dog breeds in the United States, featuring consistently in the top 20 of registered American Kennel Club dog breeds since at least 1998.