Newcastle upon Tyne commonly known as Newcastle is a city in the North East of England.
It is situated on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 14 km (8.5 mi) from the North Sea.
As of March 2020, the population of Newcastle is about 320,000 people.
The city covers a total area of 114 square kilometers (44 square miles).
The average altitude is 9 meters (29.5 feet) above sea level.
The history of Newcastle upon Tyne dates back almost 2,000 years, during which it has been controlled by the Romans, the Angles and the Norsemen amongst others.
The first settlement dates from the Roman period, when a fort was built on a site close to the present Tyne Bridge.
The district and its name derive from a Norman castle built in 1080 by Robert II, the eldest son of William I the Conqueror.
In the 12th century the town became important as a fortress settlement because of its key position in the frontier defenses guarding the east coast route from Scotland.
From 1172 to 1177 Robert’s castle was replaced by a massive stone keep (still standing) that was used to guard the bridge across the Tyne, and walls were built to enclose a small site northwest of the castle.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and later became a major coal mining area.
The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world’s largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.
The status of city was granted to Newcastle on 3 June 1882.
In the 19th century, shipbuilding and heavy engineering were central to the city’s prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution.
Today, it is one of the most well-known cities in Britain and a major retail, commercial and cultural centre.
The Castle, Newcastle, is a medieval fortification built on the site of the fortress that gave the City of Newcastle its name. The most prominent remaining structures on the site are the Castle Keep, the castle’s main fortified stone tower, and the Black Gate, its fortified gatehouse.
The Cathedral Church of St Nicholas is a Church of England cathedral in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Newcastle and is the mother church of the Diocese of Newcastle, the most northerly diocese of the Anglican Church in England, which reaches from the River Tyne as far north as Berwick-upon-Tweed and as far west as Alston in Cumbria.
Seven bridges span the River Tyne in and around Newcastle, three of them famous internationally for the revolutionary approach to bridge building that they enshrined.
The Tyne Bridge is a through arch bridge over the River Tyne in North East England, linking Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. The Tyne Bridge was designed by Mott, Hay and Anderson, comparable to their Sydney Harbour Bridge version. These bridges derived their design from the Hell Gate Bridge in New York City. The bridge was officially opened on 10 October 1928 by King George V and has since become a defining symbol of Tyneside.
The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in North East England between Gateshead’s Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank. Opened for public use in 2001, the award-winning structure was conceived and designed by architect WilkinsonEyre and structural engineer Gifford.
Grey’s Monument is a Grade I listed monument to Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey built in 1838 in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It was erected to acclaim Earl Grey for the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832 and stands at the head of Grey Street. It consists of a statue of Lord Grey standing atop a 40-meter (130-foot) high column.
The historic heart of Newcastle is the Grainger Town area. Established on classical streets built by Richard Grainger, a builder and developer, between 1835 and 1842. Richard Grainger was said to ‘have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone’. Of Grainger Town’s 450 buildings, 244 are listed, of which 29 are grade I and 49 are grade II*. Of Grainger Town’s 450 buildings, 244 are listed, of which 29 are grade I and 49 are grade II*.
The Quayside is an area along the banks of the River Tyne in Newcastle. The area was once an industrial area and busy commercial dockside serving the area, while the Newcastle side also hosted a regular street market. In recent years the docks became run-down, and the area has since been heavily redeveloped to provide a modern environment for the modern arts, music and culture, as well as new housing developments.
The city has a strong sporting tradition. Football club Newcastle United has been based at St James’ Park since the club was established in 1892.
Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 60,000 runners each year.
In 2019, various travel sites named Newcastle to be the friendliest city in the UK.