Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
It is located on the northwest coast of the world’s most populous island, Java.
As of September 2019, the population of Jakarta is about 10 million people.
Jakarta covers a total area of 661 square kilometers (255 square miles).
The city has average elevation of 8 meters (26 feet) above sea level.
The name “Jakarta” derives from the word Jayakarta which is derived from the Sanskrit jaya (victorious) and krta (accomplished, acquired), thus Jayakarta translates as “victorious deed,” “complete act” or “complete victory.”
The first settlements on the site of Jakarta were established at the mouth of the Ciliwung, perhaps as early as the 5th century AD.
The city’s official history, however, starts in 1527, when the sultan of Bantam defeated the Portuguese there and called the place Jayakerta.
The Dutch, under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, captured and razed the city in 1619, after which the capital of the Dutch East Indies—a walled township named Batavia—was established on the site.
Jakarta evolved in three stages.
The “old city”, close to the sea in the north, developed between 1619 and 1799 during the era of the VOC.
The “new city” to the south evolved between 1809 and 1942 after the Dutch government took over control of Batavia from the failed VOC whose charter expired in 1799.
The third was the development of modern Jakarta since the proclamation of independence in 1945.
Since the turn of the century, the people of Jakarta have witnessed a period of political stability and prosperity, along with another construction boom.
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII) or “Beautiful Indonesia Miniature Park” (literally translated) is a culture-based recreational area. It has an area of about 100 hectares (250 acres). The park is a synopsis of Indonesian culture, with virtually all aspects of daily life in Indonesia’s 26 (in 1975) provinces encapsulated in separate pavilions with the collections of rumah adat as the example of Indonesian vernacular architecture, clothing, dances and traditions are all depicted impeccably.
The National Monument is a 132 meters (433 feet) tower in the center of Merdeka Square, Jakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesia. It is the national monument of the Republic of Indonesia, built to commemorate the struggle for Indonesian independence. Construction began in 1961 under the direction of President Sukarno. Monas was opened to the public in 1975. It is topped by a flame covered with gold foil.
Taman Impian Jaya Ancol otherwise known as Ancol Dreamland is a resort destination. It opened in 1966 and is currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia, boasting an international championship golf course, a theme park, hotels and other recreational facilities.
Dunia Fantasi is Jakarta’s own theme park complete with over 50 rides and attractions. The theme park is divided into eight regions which are Jakarta, Indonesia, Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Fantasi Hikayat (Legendary Fantasy) region featuring Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt architecture. This fun park has bumper cars, a giant swing ride, a Ferris-style wheel, spinning tea cups, a Hello Kitty adventure, an Ice Age Arctic Adventure ride and a ‘Hysteria’ vertical thrill ride.
Ragunan Zoo is a 140-hectare (350-acre) zoo. There are a total of 3,122 animal specimens including birds. Many of the animals are endangered and threatened from all parts of Indonesia and the rest of the world. Ragunan Zoo is more than 150 years old.
SeaWorld Ancol was the largest oceanarium in South East Asia at the time it was opened, in 1996, as SeaWorld Jakarta. It was owned by Lippo Group until 2014, when contract problems caused it to be owned by Jaya Ancol now. It features the acclaimed Antasena tunnel as well as the sea friends pool, main pool, alligator pool, and shark pool.
The Jakarta History Museum also known as Fatahillah Museum or Batavia Museum, is located in the Old Town of Jakarta. The building was built in 1710 as the Stadhuis (city hall). Jakarta History Museum opened in 1974 and displays objects from the prehistory period of the city region, the founding of Jayakarta in 1527, and the Dutch colonization period from the 16th century until Indonesia’s Independence in 1945.
Jakarta has architecturally significant buildings spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York City (Big Apple).
Jakarta is an alpha world city and an important city for international diplomacy.
Jakarta’s prime challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlocked traffic, congestion, and flooding.
Additionally, Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea levels, has made the city more prone to flooding. It is one of the fastest-sinking capitals in the world.