Brighton is a city on the south coast of England, in the county of East Sussex.
It is best known as a seaside resort and is positioned 47 miles (76 km) south of London.
Brighton was created from the neighbouring but formerly separately governed towns of Brighton and Hove.
As of November 2020, the population of Brighton is about 290,000 people.
The city covers a total area of 83 square kilometers (32 square miles).
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods.
Brighton was for many centuries nothing more than a tiny fishing community.
The earliest attestation of Brighton’s name is Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone (or Brighthelmston) was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries.
“Brighton” was originally an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660 – it gradually supplanted the longer name and was in general use from the late 18th century, although Brighthelmstone
remained the town’s official name until 1810.
The site’s modern significance dates from 1754, when Richard Russell, the author of a treatise on the health benefits of seawater, settled there to put his theories into practice, thereby
initiating the vogue of sea bathing.
In 1783 the prince of Wales, later the prince regent and then King George IV, made the first of his many visits to Brighton. His powerful patronage of the locality extended almost continuously to 1827 and stamped the town with the distinguished character still reflected in its Regency squares and terraces.
Victorian Brighton grew rapidly with the opening of the railway (1841) connecting it with London.
The Church of Saint Nicholas of Myra, usually known as St. Nicholas Church, is an Anglican church in Brighton. It is both the original parish church of Brighton and, after St Helen’s
Church, Hangleton and St Peter’s Church in Preston village, the third oldest surviving building in the city of Brighton and Hove. It is located on high ground at the junction of Church Street and
Dyke Road in the city centre, very close to the main shopping areas. Due to its architectural significance the church is a Grade II* listed building.
St Peter’s Church is a church in Brighton. Built from 1824–28 to a design by Sir Charles Barry, it is arguably the finest example of the pre-Victorian Gothic Revival style. It is a Grade II* listed building. It was the parish church of Brighton from 1873 to 2007 and is sometimes unofficially referred to as “Brighton’s cathedral”.
The Church of the Holy Trinity is a Greek Orthodox church in Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. Built in 1838 in one of Brighton’s most notorious slum districts, Carlton Hill, it was an Anglican church for most of its life: dedicated to St John the Evangelist, it was used by the Anglican community until it was declared redundant in 1980. After some uncertainty about its future, it was sold to Brighton’s Greek Orthodox community in 1985 and has been used as their permanent place of worship since then. Reflecting its architectural and historical importance, it has been listed at Grade II since 1971.
The Royal Pavilion, also known as the Brighton Pavilion, is a Grade I listed former royal residence located in Brighton, England. Beginning in 1787, it was built in three stages as a seaside retreat for George, Prince of Wales, who became the Prince Regent in 1811, and King George IV in 1820. It is built in the Indo-Saracenic style prevalent in India for most of the 19th century. The current appearance of the Pavilion, with its domes and minarets, is the work of architect John Nash, who extended the building starting in 1815. George IV’s successors William IV, and Victoria, also used the Pavilion, but Queen Victoria decided that Osborne House should be the royal seaside retreat, and the Pavilion was sold to the city of Brighton in 1850.
Brighton Museum & Art Gallery is a municipally-owned public museum and art gallery in Brighton. The building which houses the collection is part of the Royal Pavilion Estate and was originally built for the Prince of Wales, later George IV and completed in 1805.
The Brighton Palace Pier, commonly known as Brighton Pier or the Palace Pier is a Grade II* listed pleasure pier in Brighton, located in the city centre opposite the Old Steine. Opening in 1899, it was the third pier to be constructed in Brighton after the Royal Suspension Chain Pier and the West Pier, but is now the only one still in operation. It is managed and operated by the Eclectic Bar Group.
British Airways i360 is a 162-meter (531-foot) observation tower on the seafront of Brighton, at the landward end of the former West Pier. The tower opened on 4 August 2016. From the fully enclosed viewing pod, visitors experience 360-degree views across Brighton, the South Downs and the English Channel.
SEA LIFE Brighton, originally known as the Brighton Aquarium, is an aquarium in Brighton, currently operated by Sea Life. The site opened as an independent aquarium in 1872 and was designed by Eugenius Birch. The Aquarium was bombed during the First World War and was reconstructed afterwards. Brighton Aquarium is the second oldest aquarium still operating in the world, after the aquarium opened at Arcachon (France) on the 14th of July 1867. Sealife Brighton features over 3,500 sea creatures and over 100 different species.
The Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower in the centre of Brighton. Built in 1888 in commemoration of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee, the distinctive structure included innovative
structural features and became a landmark in the popular and fashionable seaside resort. The city’s residents “retain a nostalgic affection” for it, even though opinion is sharply divided as to the
tower’s architectural merit. English Heritage has listed the clock tower at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance.
Brighton’s location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large and vibrant cultural, music and arts scene.
Brighton has been called the UK’s “hippest city” and “the happiest place to live in the UK”.
Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival and Brighton Fringe, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh).
Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival. There is also a twice-yearly general food festival.